Leadership Development of Technology Students through Experiential Learning
Em um mundo onde a tecnologia modifica cada detalhe de nossa sociedade em uma velocidade cada vez maior, é preocupante que a forma como desenvolvemos nossos líderes esteja melhorando tão devagar. Apesar de inúmeros estudos mostrarem que a liderança é um dos fatores que mais influenciam o sucesso de...
|Nível de Acesso:||openAccess|
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
Master in Software Management
Carnegie Mellon University - Silicon Valley
|Assuntos em Português:|
|Assuntos em Inglês:|
|Áreas de Conhecimento:|
|Citação:|| F. Brooks, The mythical man-month and other essays on software engineering. Chapel Hill: Dept. of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1974.  F. Brooks, 'No Silver Bullet Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering', Computer, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 10-19, 1987.  T. DeMarco and T. Lister, Peopleware. New York, NY: Dorset House Pub. Co., 1987.  The Standish Group, 'The CHAOS Report', 1994.  J. Eveleens and C. Verhoef, 'The rise and fall of the Chaos report figures', IEEE Softw., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 30-36, 2010.  The Standish Group, 'CHAOS Manifesto 2013: Think Big, Act Small', 2013.  R. Glass, 'Failure is looking more like success these days', IEEE Softw., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 104-103, 2002.  M. Jørgensen and K. Moløkken-Østvold, 'How large are software cost overruns? A review of the 1994 CHAOS report', Information and Software Technology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 297-301, 2006.  K. Emam and A. Koru, 'A Replicated Survey of IT Software Project Failures', IEEE Softw., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 84-90, 2008.  H. Abdul-Rahman, F. Mohd-Rahim and W. Chen, 'Reducing failures in software development projects: effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies', Journal of Risk Research, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 417-433, 2012.  T. Lehtinen, M. Mäntylä, J. Vanhanen, J. Itkonen and C. Lassenius, 'Perceived causes of software project failures – An analysis of their relationships', Information and Software Technology, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 623-643, 2014.  J. Pinto, and D. Slevin. 'Critical success factors across the project life cycle' Project Management Institute, 1988.  The Project Management Institute, 'Examining Project Manager Insights of Agile and Traditional Success Factors for Information Technology Projects', Marian University, 2011.  B. Shore, 'Failure Rates in Global IS Projects and the Leadership Challenge', Journal of Global Information Technology Management, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1-5, 2005.  P. Nixon, M. Harrington and D. Parker, 'Leadership performance is significant to project success or failure: a critical analysis', Int J Productivity & Perf Mgmt, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 204-216, 2012.  L. Raccoon, 'A leadership primer for software engineers', ACM SIGSOFT Softw. Eng. Notes, vol. 31, no. 4, p. 10, 2006.  V. Anantatmula, 'Project Manager Leadership Role in Improving Project Performance', Engineering Management Journal, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 13-22, 2010.  L. Geoghegan and V. Dulewicz, 'Do project managers' leadership competencies contribute to project success?', Proj Mgmt Jrnl, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 58-67, 2008.  J. R. Turner and R. Müller, 'The project manager's leadership style as a success factor on projects: A literature review', Project Management Institute, 2005.  L. Yang, C. Huang and K. Wu, 'The association among project manager's leadership style, teamwork and project success', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 258-267, 2011.  Center for Creative Leadership, 'Blended Learning for Leadership: The CCL Approach', 2014.  Deloitte Consulting LLP and Bersin, 'Leaders at all levels: Close the gap between hype and readiness', Delloite University Press, 2014.  K. O' Leonard and L. Loew, 'Leadership Development Factbook 2012 Benchmarks and Trends in U.S. Leadership Development', Bersin.com, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.bersin.com/ Store/Details.aspx?docid=15587. [Accessed: 15- Nov- 2015].  S. Garr and L. Loew, 'High Impact Leadership Development Driving Organizational Maturity and Business Impact', Bersin.com, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.bersin.com/Practice/ Detail.aspx?id=14449. [Accessed: 15- Nov- 2015].  Ashridge, 'Developing the Global Leader of Tomorrow', Hertfordshire, 2009.  Gallup, 'State of the American Manager: Analytics and Advice for Leaders', 2015.  The Conference Board, 'Job Satisfaction: 2014 Edition', 2015.  J. BUTLER and R. CANTRELL, 'Effects of Perceived Leadership Behaviors on Job Satisfaction and Productivity', Psychological Reports, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 976-978, 1997.  H. Saleem, 'The Impact of Leadership Styles on Job Satisfaction and Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Politics', Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 172, pp. 563-569, 2015.  The Ken Blanchard Companies, 'The High Cost of Doing Nothing: Quantifying the Impact of Leadership on the Bottom Line', 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www.kenblanchard.com/img/pub/Blanchard_The_High_Cost_of_Doing_Nothing. pdf. [Accessed: 15- Nov- 2015].  A. Hussey, 'The effect of ethics on labor market success: Evidence from MBAs', Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 168-180, 2011.  T. Carlyle, On heroes, hero-worship, and the heroic in history. New York: Frederick A. Stokes & Brother, 1842.  H. Spencer, The study of sociology. New York: D. Appleton, 1873, p. 30.  W. James, 'Great Men and their Environment', Harvard Natural History Society, 1880.  F. Fiedler, A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.  V. Dulewicz and M. Higgs, 'Assessing leadership styles and organizational context', Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 105-123, 2005.  R. Lord, R. Foti and C. De Vader, 'A test of leadership categorization theory: Internal structure, information processing, and leadership perceptions', Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 343-378, 1984.  J. Sosik and V. Godshalk, 'Leadership styles, mentoring functions received, and jobrelated stress: a conceptual model and preliminary study', Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 365-390, 2000.  A. Eagly and M. Johannesen-Schmidt, 'The Leadership Styles of Women and Men', Journal of Social Issues, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 781-797, 2001.  D. Goleman, R. Boyatzis and A. McKee, Primal leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. Harvard Business School Press, 2002.  S. Gherardi and B. Poggio, 'Tales of Ordinary Leadership. A Feminist Approach to Experiential Learning', Revista de Sociologia, vol. 93, pp. 53-65, 2009.  A. Eagly, S. Karau and M. Makhijani, 'Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: A meta-analysis.', Psychological Bulletin, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 125-145, 1995.  C. Chianglin, J. Chen and P. Yu, 'Transforming from a Researcher into a Leader in High-Tech Industries', Int. J. Info. Tech. Dec. Mak., vol. 03, no. 03, pp. 379-393, 2004.  Blanchard, Ken. 2015. 'Critical Leadership Skills - Key Traits That Can Make or Break Today’S Leaders'. The Ken Blanchard Companies. http://www.kenblanchard.com/img/pub/pdf_critical_leadership_skills.pdf. [Accessed: 28- Oct- 2015].  Prive, Tanya. 2012. 'Top 10 Qualities That Make A Great Leader'. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/tanyaprive/2012/12/19/top-10-qualities-that-make-agreat- leader/. [Accessed: 28- Oct- 2015].  Zenger, Jack, and Joseph Folkman. 2014. 'The Skills Leaders Need At Every Level'. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2014/07/the-skills-leaders-need-at-everylevel. [Accessed: 29- Oct- 2015].  Downard, Brian. 2015. '31 Leadership Experts Reveal Top Leadership Skills & Traits'. ELIV8. http://eliv8group.com/leadership-expert-roundup/. [Accessed: 27- Oct- 2015].  Center for Creative Leadership, "Expanding the Leadership Equation: Developing Next-Generation Leaders", 2015.  C. Herbermann, 'Education in Ancient Egypt', The American Catholic Quarterly Review, vol. 18, no. 0271-5767, pp. 176-200, 2015.  G. Duke, 'Sophists | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy', Iep.utm.edu, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.iep.utm.edu/sophists/. [Accessed: 09- Nov- 2015].  New World Encyclopedia, 'Platonic Academy', 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Platonic_Academy. [Accessed: 09- Nov- 2015].  B. Pauley, 'The Academy Versus The Lyceum', The Thin Tweed Line - Humanstudy.org, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.humanstudy.org/history/2012- 03-pauley-b.html. [Accessed: 09- Nov- 2015].  C. Michael, ‘Historiography and Roman Education’, 1953. History of Education Journal 4. History of Education Society, pp. 149–56. [Online]. Available: http://jstor.org/stable/3659151.  H. Marrou, A history of education in antiquity. New York: New American Library, 1964, pp. 232-234.  R. Guisepi, 'The History of Education', History-world.org. [Online]. Available: http://history-world.org/history_of_education.htm. [Accessed: 09- Nov- 2015].  P. Rich , Education and culture in the barbarian West - sixth through eighth centuries. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1976, pp. 126-7, 282-98.  J. Hexter, 'The Education of the Aristocracy in the Renaissance', The Journal of Modern History, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 1, 1950.  M. McCall, M. Lombardo and A. Morrison, The lessons of experience: how successful executives develop the job. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1988.  J. Cross, '50 suggestions for implementing 70-20-10', Internet Time Blog, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.internettime.com/2013/02/50-suggestions-forimplementing- 70-20-10/. [Accessed: 13- Sep- 2015].  DeakinPrime, 'Demystifying 70:20:10', Deakin University, Melbourne, 2013.  J. Segers, 'The problem with the 70:20:10 rule in leadership development', The Future Leadership Initiative, 2012. [Online]. Available: https://thefutureleadershipinitiative.wordpress.com/2012/08/04/the-problem-withthe- 702010-rule-in-leadership-development/. [Accessed: 13- Sep- 2015].  J. Williams, C. Townsend and J. Linder, 'Teaching Leadership: Do Students Remember and Utilize the Concepts We Teach?', Journal of Leadership Education, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 62-74, 2015.  R. Gillies, 'Teachers' and students' verbal behaviors during cooperative and smallgroup learning', British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 271-287, 2006.  D. Ancona and R. Cole, 'Strategies for Learning: Small-Group Activities in American, Japanese, and Swedish Industry', Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 2, p. 309, 1991.  C. Connolly, M. Carns, and A. Carns, Traditional-and activity-based laboratory groups: A quantitative comparison of two teaching approaches. Journal of Professional Counseling, Practice, Theory, & Research, vol. 33, no. 1, p. 4, 2005.  T. Tomcho and R. Foels, 'Meta-Analysis of Group Learning Activities', Teaching of Psychology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 159-169, 2012.  A. Yazedjian and B. Kolkhorst, 'Implementing Small-Group Activities in Large Lecture Classes', College Teaching, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 164-169, 2007.  R. Hertz-Lazarovits and N. Miller, Interaction in cooperative groups. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.  J. Tang and L. Leifer, 'An observational methodology for studying group design activity', Research in Engineering Design, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 209-219, 1991.  L. Suchman, Plans and Situated Actions: The Problem of Human-Machine Communication. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Cambridge University Press, 1987, p. 114.  L. Michaelsen, L. Fink and A. Knight, 'Designing Effective Group Activities: Lessons for Classroom Teaching and Faculty Development', Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education, vol. 16, no. 373-397, 1997.  HayGroup, 'The Kolb Learning Style Inventory - Version 3.1 2005 Technical Specifications', Case Western Reserve University, 2005.  A. Kolb and D. Kolb, 'Experiential Learning Theory: A Dynamic, Holistic Approach to Management Learning, Education and Development', The SAGE Handbook of Management Learning, Education and Development, pp. 42-68, 2009.  A. Chapman, ‘David Kolb's learning styles model and experiential learning theory', Businessballs, 2006. [Online]. Available: http://www.businessballs.com/kolblearningstyles.htm. [Accessed: 05- Nov- 2015].  D. Boud, R. Keogh and D. Walker, Reflection, turning experience into learning. London: Kogan Page, 1985.  M. Tennant, Psychology and adult learning. London: Routledge, 2006.  D. Holman, K. Pavlica and R. Thorpe, 'Rethinking Kolb's Theory of Experiential Learning in Management Education: The Contribution of Social Constructionism and Activity Theory', Management Learning, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 135-148, 1997.  M. Reynolds, 'Critical Reflection and Management Education: Rehabilitating Less Hierarchical Approaches', Journal of Management Education, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 537-553, 1999.  R. Vince, 'Behind and Beyond Kolb's Learning Cycle', Journal of Management Education, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 304-319, 1998.  M. Smith, 'David A. Kolb on experiential learning.', The encyclopedia of informal education, 2010. [Online]. Available: http://infed.org/mobi/david-a-kolb-onexperiential- learning/. [Accessed: 19- Out- 2015].  M. Gitsham, Developing the global leader of tomorrow. Ashridge, 2008.  G. Warnick, J. Schmidt and A. Bowden, "An Experiential Learning Approach to Develop Leadership Competencies in Engineering and Technology Students", in 2014 ASEE Annual Conference, Indianapolis, 2014.  J. Krupar and G. Suckarieh, "Leadership And Teamwork Education For Engineering And Technology Students", in 2005 ASEE Annual Conference, Portland, 2005.  M. Gitsham, "Experiential learning for leadership and sustainability at IBM and HSBC", Journal of Mgmt Development, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 298-307, 2012.  T. Smith and M. Rosser, "Leadership Development through Experiential Learning", in Association of Leadership Educators Conference, Ft. Worth, 2007.  K. Guthrie and T. Jones, "Teaching and Learning: Using Experiential Learning and Reflection for Leadership Education", New Directions for Student Services, vol. 2012, no. 140, pp. 53-63, 2012.  S. Penger, J. Znidarsic and V. Dimovski, "Experiential Learning And Management Education: Empirical Research And Implications For Practice In Higher Education In Slovenia", International Journal of Management and Information Systems, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 23-34, 2011.  M. Qurban and R. Austria, "Improving the Communication Skills of IS Developers during Requirements Elicitation Using Experiential Learning", Journal of Information Systems Education, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 301-311, 2009.  G. Regev, D. Gause and A. Wegmann, "Experiential learning approach for requirements engineering education", Requirements Engineering, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 269- 287, 2009.  J. Bangs, "Experiential Learning in an Organizational Leadership Program", Journal of College Teaching & Learning, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 29-34, 2011.  J. Barbuto, "Dramaturgical Teaching in the Leadership Classroom", Journal of Leadership Education, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 4-13, 2006.  I. Sutherland and J. Jelinek, "From Experiential Learning to Aesthetic Knowing: The Arts in Leadership Development", Advances in Developing Human Resources, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 289-306, 2015.  E. Turesky and D. Gallagher, "Know thyself Coaching for leadership using Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory", The Coaching Psychologist, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 5-14, 2011.  W. Zhang and M. Brundrett, "School leaders' perspectives on leadership learning: the case for informal and experiential learning", Management in Education, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 154-158, 2010.  R. Belton, "The impacts of experiential learning on leadership identity in female college graduates", PhD, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2010.  S. Kaagan, Leadership Games: Experiential Learning for Organizational Development. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1999.  George Mason University, "Leadership Activities and Exercises", 2015. [Online]. Available: http://lead.gmu.edu/training-resources/activities-and-exercises/. [Accessed: 02- Oct- 2015].  A. Chapman, "Donald Kirkpatrick's Learning Evaluation Theory", Businessballs.com, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.businessballs.com/kirkpatricklearningevaluationmodel.htm. [Accessed: 04- Oct- 2015].|
|Resumo Português:||Em um mundo onde a tecnologia modifica cada detalhe de nossa sociedade em uma velocidade cada vez maior, é preocupante que a forma como desenvolvemos nossos líderes esteja melhorando tão devagar. Apesar de inúmeros estudos mostrarem que a liderança é um dos fatores que mais influenciam o sucesso de projetos e de mais de U$ 14 bilhões serem gastos anualmente com desenvolvimento de liderança, mais da metade das organizações acredita que não o esteja fazendo de forma eficaz. Uma das metodologias mais eficientes para o desenvolvimento de liderança dentro das organizações é a Aprendizagem Experiencial, proposta por David Kolb, mas ainda se observa pouca padronização no modo como ela é utilizada, com diversas abordagens diferentes e resultados muito variados. Por esta razão, este estudo propõe um modelo padronizado para o uso de dinâmicas de grupo como um meio para ajudar alunos de tecnologia a praticar habilidades de liderança. Um primeiro piloto foi executado com resultados e feedback bastante positivos, que indicam o potencial de sua aplicação para outras habilidades e contextos.|
In a world where technology is changing every single detail of our societies, schools, and organizations in a skyrocketing speed, it is worrying that the way we develop our leaders is improving so slowly. With numerous studies showing that leadership is one of the factors that impact the most on software projects’ success, it is worrying that more than $14B are spent yearly with leadership development and, still, most organizations believe they are not being effective. One of the most efficient methodologies for leadership development inside companies is the Experiential Learning from David Kolb, but it still has some problems in gaining traction inside universities due to their difficulty of simulating practical experiences. Many different approaches have been tried with various results and little standardization is perceived on the way they are used. For this reason, this study proposes a framework for using group activities as a means to help technology students practice leadership skills. A first pilot was executed with pleasant results and feedback from students, but more experiments are necessary to ensure its application for other skills and contexts.