Atividade antiproliferativa de extrato de araucaria angustifolia em células tumorais de laringe HEp-2

Os produtos naturais constituem uma das fontes mais promissoras para o descobrimento de novos ativos na terapêutica do câncer. O carcinoma de laringe é um dos mais comuns tipos de câncer envolvendo as áreas de cabeça e pescoço, e apresenta elevada taxa de morbidade e mortalidade em pacientes com est...

Nível de Acesso:openAccess
Publication Date:2016
Main Author: Branco, Cátia dos Santos
Orientador/a: Salvador, Mirian
Format: Tese
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Resumo inglês:Natural products are among one of the most promising fields in finding new active substances in cancer therapy. Laryngeal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers affecting the head and neck regions, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with the advanced stage. Alternative and/or complementary therapies for treating this cancer represents an emerging need. One of the most promising alternatives is the development of nanocarriers containing antitumor substances. Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O Kuntze) belongs to Araucariaceae family and it is recognized as medicinal plant. Female strobilus originates the pinecone, which contains seeds and undeveloped seeds, commonly known as bracts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative effects of A. angustifolia bracts aqueous extract (AAE) in HEp-2 cancer cells and its action mechanisms. Moreover, the possibility to associate AAE in nanospheres (NS) to improve its antitumor effect was also investigated. Chemical analysis using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) revealed the major presence of polyphenols in AAE. The results showed that AAE induced cytotoxicity in HEp-2 cells, by using two differents approaches (MTT and Trypan blue assays). However, the extract was not able to induce significant cytotoxicity in HEK-293 normal cells used as control, indicating a selective differential effect of AEE in tumor cells. HEp-2 treated cells presented high levels of lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage to proteins and increment on NO production, along with depletion on antioxidante defenses superoxide dismutase (Sod) and catalase (Cat). In addition, AAE induced DNA damage, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation in these cells. Epigenetic alterations, such as DNA hypomethylation and DNMT1 activity were also observed. Cell exposition to the AAE increased expression of proteins of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway, via Baxtriggered, along with AIF release, and it is independent of p53 incitement. AAE changed energetic metabolism of cancer cells, increasing levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and stimulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Although it enabled the mitochondria of these cells, the extract caused loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), reduction on protein expression levels of complex I and III, inhibition of complex I activity, ROS generation and ATP depletion. The association of EAA to NS allowed obtaining systems with particle size lower than 200 nm, polydispersity index less than 1, negative zeta potential and pH stable for the period of 30 days, under tested condition. However, the association rate obtained was low (19%); therefore, further studies are needed to improve AAE encapsulation. The NS per se demonstrated ability to reduce the viability of tumor cells and induce redox stress, sensitizing these cells, proving to be a possible carrier for delivery of antitumor substances. The data set of this study demonstrates the potentiality of the compounds present in the A. angustifolia bracts for the development of new therapeutic strategies for cancer.