O encontro das psic??logas com o "social" no CRAS/SUAS: entre o suposto da igualdade e a concretude da desigualdade

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Nível de Acesso:openAccess
Publication Date:2013
Main Author: Santos, Luane Neves
Orientador/a: Silva, Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira
Format: Dissertação
Language:por
Assuntos em Português:
Online Access:http://www.repositorio.ufba.br/ri/handle/ri/12252
Resumo Português:Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar como a desigualdade social, materializada no contato com popula????es pobres e vulner??veis socialmente, repercute na profissional psic??loga e em sua atua????o no CRAS/SUAS. Utilizou-se como aporte te??rico a teoria da subjetividade proposta por Gonz??lez Rey e produ????es brasileiras sobre a desigualdade social, com ??nfase na teoria de Jess?? Souza. Optou-se pela metodologia qualitativa para estudo da subjetividade, a partir da perspectiva s??cio hist??rica, uma vez que esta incorpora a dial??tica entre objetividade e subjetividade, no esfor??o para articular o sujeito ao seu processo social e hist??rico. Considerando o envolvimento da pesquisadora com o tema, recorreu-se a an??lise da implica????o enquanto recurso metodol??gico e mecanismo ??tico-pol??tico para interlocu????o com a pesquisa. A defini????o do instrumento seguiu a l??gica da din??mica conversacional, almejando transformar a pesquisa em um espa??o de constru????o de sentido. A coleta de dados ocorreu no ambiente laboral das seis psic??logas participantes, requerendo entre dois e tr??s encontros individuais. As conversas foram estimuladas atrav??s de coment??rios e inser????o de temas e reflex??es, de modo aberto, ainda que contemplassem quatro eixos norteados: 1) trajet??ria pessoal e familiar; 2) trajet??ria profissional; 3) o trabalho na assist??ncia social b??sica; 4) hip??teses explicativas da desigualdade social. A an??lise dos dados desenvolveu-se como um processo construtivo-interpretativo, no qual ap??s transcri????o das conversa????es, foram conduzidas v??rias leituras do material coletado, visando sele????o de indicadores, destacados pelo aspecto emocional e simb??lico que revelavam. Foram ent??o constru??dos os n??cleos de sentido das configura????es subjetivas de cada participante, para posteriormente elaborar as zonas de sentido, articulando elementos das subjetividades individuais e social. As s??nteses das viv??ncias singulares foram agrupadas em seis zonas de sentidos: 1) hip??teses explicativas sobre a desigualdade social; 2) enfrentamentos da desigualdade social; 3) a dicotomia social X psicol??gico; 4) a atua????o no CRAS frente ?? concretude da desigualdade social; 5) o (des)preparo das psic??logas para atuar na assist??ncia social b??sica; 6) a m?? f?? institucional na assist??ncia social b??sica. A an??lise destes dados permitiu perceber que o trabalho na assist??ncia social insere as psic??logas em din??micas laborais, nas quais vivenciam posi????es subjetivas referentes ?? condi????o de oprimidas e opressoras, construindo pr??ticas 10 atravessadas por sentidos subjetivos que culpabilizam os usu??rios por sua condi????o social e naturalizam o fen??meno da desigualdade social. As participantes apresentaram sentimentos de frustra????o, impot??ncia, ang??stia e sofrimento, numa din??mica que alia compaix??o e conforma????o frente ??s hip??teses explicativas de uma realidade social com forte estratifica????o. A vis??o dicot??mica, em que demandas sociais n??o s??o vistas em rela????o com as demandas psicol??gicas, leva a uma atua????o fragmentada, influenciada pelos modos de enfrentamento da desigualdade social. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de reposicionar as pr??ticas para atuar na dimens??o subjetiva dos problemas sociais, produzindo novas tecnologias e reflex??es sobre o lugar social das t??cnicas, aliado a um trabalho que oportunize espa??os de express??o para os usu??rios, visualizando pot??ncias sem perder de vista os limites impostos pelos determinantes sociais e compreendendo a transforma????o da realidade social como responsabilidade coletiva e cotidiana. This study aimed to investigate how social inequality - manifested in the contact with socially vulnerable populations - has repercussions in psychologists and their work at CRAS/SUAS. Gonz??lez Rey's theory of subjectivity was the theoretical basis used, along with Jess?? Souza's papers on social inequality. The study of subjectivity has been done using the qualitative methodology with a socio-historical perspective. Such frame of reference has been chosen due to an effort to relate the subject to its social and historical process, it incorporates the dialectic between objectivity and subjectivity. Considering the researcher's involvement with the theme, implication analysis has been employed both as a methodological resource and ethical-political mechanism to dialogue with the study. The definition of the research instrument followed the Conversational Dynamics Model, which has transformed the study into a process in which meaning could be built to its participants. Data collection took place at the participant Psychologists' workplace and required about two and three individual meetings. The conversations were stimulated through comments and the presentation of themes and reflections that contemplated four different topics: 1) personal and family related trajectory; 2) professional trajectory; 3) professional practice at basic welfare; 4) explanatory hypothesis of social inequality. The data analysis has been developed as a constructive-interpretative process, where the transcripted conversations were read several times in order to select indicators that stood out by the emotional and symbolic aspects they revealed. The following step was the formulation of meaning nuclei of the subjective configurations of each participant, which lead to the elaboration of zones of meaning that articulates elements of social and individual subjectivities. The summaries of the singular experiences were grouped in six zones of meaning: 1) explanatory hypothesis concerning social inequality; 2) confrontation of social inequality; 3) the social vs. psychological dychotomy; 4) working at CRAS while facing the reality of social inequality; 5) the psychologists' unpreparedness to work at basic welfare; 6) the institutional disbelief in basic welfare. The data analysis showed that the professional practice at welfare places the psychologists in labor dynamics in which they experience the subjective positions of being at once the oppressors and the oppressed. Through such positions, the psychologists have built practices that are affected by subjective meanings that blame their clients for their social condition, thus naturalizing the phenomenon of social inequality. The participants have showed feelings of frustration, impotence, anguish, and suffering, while showing compassion and resignation when faced with the explanatory hypothesis of a strongly stratified social reality. A dichotomous point of view - in which social demands are not seen as related to psychological demands - leads to a fragmented profissional practice. The study's results suggest the need to change the professional practice in order to operate on the subjective dimension of social problems, yielding new technologies and reflections on the social place of techniques. Furthermore, the professional practice should provide spaces where the clients can express themselves and can be understood in their possibilities and limitations provided by social determinants.