Respostas ecofisiológicas e bioquímicas da erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia Lind.) ao estresse natalino

The saltbush is an C4 species extremely tolerant to soils and saline waters and has good capacity to accumulate quantities of salts in their tissues, also serving as forage potential. Therefore, it is an excellent material for the identification of physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved i...

Nível de Acesso:openAccess
Publication Date:2014
Main Author: Costa, Naiara Araújo da lattes
Orientador/a: Oliveira Júnior, Luiz Fernando Ganassali de lattes
Format: Dissertação
Language:por
Programa: Pós-Graduação em Agroecossistemas
Assuntos em Português:
Assuntos em Inglês:
Áreas de Conhecimento:
Online Access:https://ri.ufs.br/handle/riufs/6576
Resumo Português:A erva-sal e uma especie C4 extremamente tolerante aos solos e as aguas salinas e possui boa capacidade de acumular quantidades de sais em seus tecidos, servindo tambem como potencial forrageiro. Portanto, e um excelente material para a identificacao de mecanismos fisiologicos e bioquimicos envolvidos na resistencia a salinidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as respostas ecofisiologicas e bioquimicas da erva-sal sob niveis crescentes de NaCl. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos mantidos em casa de vegetacao e irrigadas a cada 2 dias nas concentracoes 0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 mM de NaCl ao longo do tempo. Foram determinados a biometria (altura e diametro do caule), trocas gasosas (assimilacao fotossintetica de CO2 (A), condutancia estomatica (gS), concentracao interna de carbono (Ci), transpiracao (E) e deficit de pressao de vapor entre o ar e a folha (DPVfolha-ar)), teor relativo de clorofilas (Chl a, Chl b, Chl total e relacao Chl a/b) e teor de prolina nas folhas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5x4, sendo cinco niveis de salinidade e quatro periodos de avaliacao (0, 15, 30 e 45 dias), com 5 repeticoes. Aos 60 dias avaliou-se o efeito dos niveis 0, 150 e 300 mM de NaCl no crescimento, biomassa fresca e seca da parte aerea (caule+folhas) e raiz, trocas gasosas, teor relativo de clorofilas, teor de Na+, K+ e relacao Na+/K+ na parte aerea e raiz, e teor de prolina nas folhas. O delineamento experimental foi DIC, sendo tres niveis de salinidade e cinco repeticoes. Ate os 45 dias a erva-sal apresentou um estimulo do crescimento em todos os niveis de NaCl, sendo 0, 150 e 300 mM de NaCl os que apresentaram maiores valores de altura e diametro do caule. Quanto as trocas gasosas a erva-sal apresentou um periodo adaptativo de 15 dias, seguido de incremento da assimilacao fotossintetica. A erva-sal acumulou mais Na+ que K+, com maior acumulo na parte aerea que na raiz, ate o nivel 300 mM de NaCl, sendo este o nivel de salinidade que proporcionou maior producao de biomassa fresca (46,38 g) e seca (19,69 g) . O aumento da salinidade promoveu acumulo de prolina, cuja maior concentracao (3,11 Êmol g-1 MF) foi verificado no tratamento 600 mM de NaCl. Aos 60 dias o estresse salino nao induziu diferencas significativas no crescimento das plantas, mas promoveu reducao da assimilacao fotossintetica e aumento da concentracao interna de carbono. Apos 60 dias, a erva-sal acumulou Na+ em sua parte aerea, com crescimento e producao de biomassa favorecidas ate o nivel 300 mM de NaCl. O aumento nos niveis de salinidade reduz a assimilacao fotossintetica da erva-sal, mas nao afetou significativamente a producao de clorofilas. Em resposta a salinidade a erva-sal apresenta aumento na concentracao de prolina em suas folhas. Sob salinidade crescente, a erva-sal desenvolve mecanismos fisiologicos e bioquimicos capazes de assegurar seu crescimento, sendo o nivel 300 mM de NaCl o que favorece seu maximo de producao.
Resumo inglês:The saltbush is an C4 species extremely tolerant to soils and saline waters and has good capacity to accumulate quantities of salts in their tissues, also serving as forage potential. Therefore, it is an excellent material for the identification of physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in the resistance to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ecophysiological and biochemical responses of saltbush under increasing levels of NaCl. Plants were grown in pots kept in a greenhouse and irrigated every 2 days at concentrations of 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mM NaCl over time. Were determined biometric (height and stem diameter), gas exchange (photosynthetic assimilation of CO2 (A), stomatal conductance (gS), the internal concentration of carbon (Ci), transpiration (E) and vapor pressure deficit between leaf and air (DPVair-leaf)), the content of chlorophyll (Chl a, Chl b, Chl total and Chl a / b) and content of proline in leaves. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with five levels of salinity and for evaluation periods (0, 15, 30 and 45 days) with 5 replications. At 60 days evaluated the effect of levels 0, 150 and 300 mM NaCl on growth, fresh and dry biomass of shoot (stem+leaves) and root, gas exchange, content of chlorophyll, content of Na+, K+ and Na+/K+ in shoot and roots, and content of proline in leaves. The experimental design was DIC, with three levels of salinity and five replications. Until 45 days saltbush presented a stimulating growth at all levels of NaCl, and 0, 150 and 300 mM NaCl showed the highest values of height and stem diameter. As for the gas exchange saltbush presented an adaptive period of 15 days, followed by increase in photosynthetic assimilation. The saltbush accumulated more Na+ than K+, with greater accumulation in the shoot than in the root, to the 300 mM NaCl level, this is the salinity level that the highest yield of fresh biomass (46,38 g) and dried (19,69 g). Increased salinity promoted accumulation of proline, whose highest concentration (3,11 micromol g-1 FM) was observed in 600 mM NaCl treatment. At 60 days the salt stress induced no significant differences in plant growth, but promoted reduction of photosynthetic assimilation and increased internal carbon concentration. After 60 days, saltbush accumulated Na+ in shoot with growth and biomass production was enhanced up to 300 mM NaCl level. Increased levels of salinity reduces the photosynthetic assimilation of the saltbush, but did not significantly affect the production of chlorophylls. In response to salinity saltbush has increased the concentration of proline in their leaves. With increasing salinity, the saltbush develops physiological and biochemical mechanisms to ensure its growth, with the 300 mM NaCl level which favors its maximum production.