Caracterização química dos óleos essenciais e extratos supercríticos de três espécies de Piper de Sergipe

To contribute to the knowledge of the chemical species P. klotzschianum, P. hispidum and P. arboreum, analyzes of volatile obtained by hydrodistillation-(HD), extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction-(SFE) and identification of isolated compounds were performed using techniques such as GC...

Nível de Acesso:openAccess
Publication Date:2014
Main Author: Lima, Rafaely Nascimento lattes
Orientador/a: Alves, Péricles Barreto lattes
Format: Dissertação
Language:por
Programa: Pós-Graduação em Química
Assuntos em Portugês:
Assuntos em Inglês:
Áreas de Conhecimento:
Online Access:https://ri.ufs.br/handle/riufs/6097
Resumo Português:Visando contribuir para o conhecimento quimico das especies P. klotzschianum, P. hispidum e P. arboreum, analises dos volateis obtidos por hidrodestilacao-(HD), extratos obtidos por extracao com fluido supercritico-(EFS) e identificacao de compostos isolados foram realizadas por tecnicas como CG/EM/DIC, RMN (1D, 2D) e IV. Sesquiterpenos presentes na P. klotzschianum, P. hispidum e P. arboreum como o (E)-cariofileno, biciclogermacreno e o germacreno D observados somente na P. klotzschianum e P. hispidum foram as principais substancias responsaveis pelos altos percentuais de sesquiterpenos identificados obtidos por HD. Para os monoterpenos o £]-pineno (27,19¡Ó0,27%) e £-pineno (7,17¡Ó0,50%) identificados na composicao quimica dos caules de P. klotzschianum e Ô-3-careno (17,39¡Ó0,15%-19,13¡Ó0,48%) respectivamente presente nas folhas frescas e folhas secas da P. hispidum mereceram destaque. O maior rendimento de extrato utilizando dioxido de carbono supercritico-(SC-CO2) foi 1,36% (80 ¢XC/220 bar) P. klotzschianum e 1,92% (80 ¢XC/200 bar) para a P. hispidum, ja com adicao de modificadores 2,18% para a P. klotzschianum e 3,62% para a P. hispidum ambas utilizando 5% de metanol a 80 ¢XC/220 bar. Pela analise de variancia e teste F o co-solvente foi a variavel que maior influenciou para os rendimentos dos extratos F=288,95 (P. klotzschianum) e F=409,59 (P.hispidum). Os constituintes majoritarios identificados por CG/EM/DIC para a P. hispidum utilizando SC-CO2 e SC-CO2 + co-solventes foram o germacreno D (21,08%-80 ¢XC/200 bar- isopropanol 1%) e o esqualeno (15,18%-80 ¢XC/200 bar). Quatro substancias inicialmente nao identificadas por CG/EM/DIC foram isoladas dos extratos de SC-CO2 por meio de cromatografia em coluna-(CC) seguida de cromatografia em camada preparativa-(CCDP) N-[3-(6¡¦-metoxi-3¡¦,4¡¦-metilenodioxifenil)-2(Z)-propenoil]-pirrolidina (PHC7_1), N-[3-(6¡¦-metoxi-3¡¦,4¡¦-metilenodioxifenil)-2(E)-propenoil]-pirrolidina (PHC7_2), N-[7(3¡¦,4¡¦ metilenodioxifenil)-2(Z),4(E)-heptadienoil]-pirrolidina (PHC6_2) e N-[7(3¡¦,4¡¦ metilenodioxifenil)-2(E),4(Z)-heptadienoil]-pirrolidina (PHC9), dentre estas apenas a PHC7_1 foi citada na literatura sobre P. hispidum, as demais foram relatadas pela primeira vez na especie, sendo a PHC6_2 e PHC9 ineditas na literatura. Na composicao quimica dos extratos da P. klotzschianum o germacreno D (25,00¡Ó0,11%-40 ¢XC/220 bar/isopropanol 3%), biciclogermacreno (15,41¡Ó0,23%-40 ¢XC/220 bar/isopropanol 3%), 14-oxi-£-muuroleno (21,23¡Ó0,10%-80 ¢XC/180 bar/etanol 3%), pipercalosidina (22,06¡Ó0,01%-40 ¢XC/180 bar/metanol 1%) e (E)-cariofileno (11,66¡Ó0,05%-40¢XC/220 bar/isopropanol 3%) foram os constituintes majoritarios presentes nos extratos obtidos com SC-CO2 ou com adicao de modificadores. Dentre as amostras testadas na IC50 frente as celulas HepG2 e HL60 as amostras P. klotzschianum oleo dos caules (94,77¡Ó1,93%-HepG2), P. klotzschianum oleo dos frutos (90,53¡Ó1,10%-HepG2, 76,64¡Ó7,44%-HL60) e P. klotzschianum oleo das folhas frescas (93,24¡Ó0,70%-HepG2) apresentaram atividade citotoxica. Os oleos obtidos das folhas secas da P. klotzschianum (122,372¡Ó1,247 £gg mL-1), folhas secas da P. hispidum (141,876¡Ó2,333 £gg mL-1), folhas frescas da P. arboreum (187,901¡Ó2,106 £gg mL-1) e folhas frescas da P. klotzschianum (223,051¡Ó1,253 £gg mL-1) apresentaram atividade larvicida contra o mosquito Aedes aegypti.
Resumo inglês:To contribute to the knowledge of the chemical species P. klotzschianum, P. hispidum and P. arboreum, analyzes of volatile obtained by hydrodistillation-(HD), extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction-(SFE) and identification of isolated compounds were performed using techniques such as GC/MS/FID, NMR (1D, 2D) and IV. Sesquiterpenes present in P. klotzschianum, P. hispidum and P. arboreum as the (E)-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D observed only in P.hispidum and P. klotzschianum were the main substances responsible for the high values obtained sesquiterpenes identified by HD. For the monoterpenes £]-pinene (27.19¡Ó0.27%) and £-pinene (7.17¡Ó0.50%) identified in the chemical composition of the stems of P. klotzschianum and Ô-3-carene (17.39¡Ó0.15%, 19.13¡Ó0.48%) respectively present in fresh and dry leaves of P. hispidum also deserved highlighted. The highest yield of extract using supercritical carbon dioxide-(SC-CO2) was 1.36% (80 ¢XC/220 bar) P. klotzschianum and 1.92% (80 ¢XC/200 bar) for P. hispidum, already with the addition of modifiers 2.18% for P. klotzschianum and 3.62% P. hispidum both using 5% methanol at 80 ¢XC/220 bar. By analysis of variance and F test the cosolvent was the variable that most influenced the yields of extracts for F = 288.95 (P. klotzschianum) and F = 409.59 (P.hispidum). The major compounds identified by GC/MS/FID of P. hispidum using SC-CO2 and SC-CO2 + co-solvents were germacrene D (21.08%-80 ¢XC/200 bar-isopropanol 1%) and squalene (15.18%-80 ¢X C/200 bar). Four compounds not initially identified by GC/MS/FID were isolated from extracts of SC-CO2 by column-chromatography (CC) followed by preparative layer chromatography-(CCDP): N-[3-(6-methoxy-3´, 4´-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z)-propenoyl]-pyrrolidine (PHC7_1), N-[3-(6´-methoxy-3´, 4´-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2 (E)-propenoyl]-pyrrolidine (PHC7_2), N-[7 (3´, 4´ methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z), 4(E)-heptadienoil]-pyrrolidine (PHC6_2) and N-[7 (3´, 4´ methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(E), 4(Z)-heptadienoil]-pyrrolidine (PHC9), among these only PHC7_1 was cited in the literature on P. hispidum, the others were first reported in the species, with an PHC6_2 PHC9 unpublished in the literature. In chemical composition of the extracts of P. klotzschianum, germacrene D (25.00¡Ó0.11%-40 ¢XC/220 bar/isopropanol 3%), bicyclogermacrene (15.41¡Ó0.23%-40 ¢XC/220 bar/isopropanol 3%), 14-oxy-muuroleno-£ (21.23¡Ó0.10%-80 ¢XC/180 bar/ethanol 3%) pipercalosidina (22.06¡Ó0.01%-40 ¢XC/180 bar/methanol 1%) and (E)-caryophyllene (11.66¡Ó0.05%-40 ¢XC/220 bar/isopropanol 3%) are the major constituents present in the extracts obtained with SC-CO2 or addition modifier. Among the samples tested in front of IC50 HepG2 and HL-60 cells, the samples P. hispidum stems oil (94.77¡Ó1.93%-HepG2), P. klotzschianum fruit oil (90.53¡Ó1.10%-HepG2, 76.64¡Ó7.44%-HL-60) and P. klotzschianum oil fresh leaves (93.24¡Ó0.70%-HepG2) had cytotoxic activity. The oil obtained from the dried leaves of P. klotzschianum (122.372¡Ó1.247 £gg mL-1), dried leaves of P. hispidum (141.876¡Ó2.333 £gg mL-1), fresh leaves of P. arboreum (187.901¡Ó2.106 £gg mL-1) and fresh leaves P. klotzschianum (223.051¡Ó1.253 £gg mL-1) showed larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti.