Progresso genético do programa de melhoramento de arroz irrigado em Minas Gerias no período de 1993/1994 a 2015/2016

O arroz (Oryza sativa) é considerado a terceira maior cultura cerealífera do mundo, sendo responsável pela alimentação de metade da população mundial. Visto que Minas Gerais situa-se entre os principais estados produtores de arroz do país e a demanda do produto é elevada no estado, a liberação de cu...

Nível de Acesso:openAccess
Publication Date:2017
Main Author: Silva Júnior, Antônio Carlos lattes
Orientador/a: Cruz, Cosme Damião
Format: Dissertação
Language:por
Published: Universidade Federal de Viçosa
Áreas de Conhecimento:
Online Access:http://www.locus.ufv.br/handle/123456789/16370
Citação:SILVA JÚNIOR, Antônio Carlos da. Progresso genético do programa de melhoramento de arroz irrigado em Minas Gerias no período de 1993/1994 a 2015/2016. 2017. 69f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Genética e Melhoramento) - Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa. 2017.
Resumo inglês:Rice (Oryza sativa) is considered the third largest cereal crop in the world and is responsible for feeding half of the world population. Since Minas Gerais is among the main rice-producing states of the country and the demand for the product is high in the state, the release of improved cultivars is one of the most powerful ways of increasing crop production. Estimating genetic progress is one of the tools used to evaluate the effectiveness of breeding programs and is useful for identifying and correcting possible planning errors. In this context, the objective of this work was to estimate the genetic progress of grain yield of the irrigated rice breeding program developed in Minas Gerais in the agricultural years of 1993/1994 to 2015/2016 based on value and use cultivation trials (VCU's), to evaluate the efficiency of the Breseghello's methodology and the traditional one to estimate the genetic progress using large amount of genotypes and the efficiency of the genetic improvement of the irrigated rice in the state of Minas Gerais. VCU assays were conducted in Janaúba, Leopoldina and Lambari, and 210 lines and cultivars were evaluated in the period, in a randomized block design, ranging from three to four replicates. Cultural dealings were made according to the requirement of culture. The average genotypic replacement rate was 44% for Lambari and Janaúba, and 43% for Leopoldina. The average maintenance rate in Lambari was 39%, already in Janaúba and Leopoldina this consisted of 40%. Genetic gains during the period 1993 to 2016 were very discrepant between sites. Using the methodology of Vencovsky et al. (1986) showed higher gain in Lambari compared to other sites (53.1 kg.ha -1 year -1 ), meaning an increase of 1.46% per year, in Janaúba the genetic gain was 8.68 kg .ha-1 year-1, a result that represents a rate of 0.14% per year. In Leopoldina, the increase in productivity (6.65 kg.ha -1 year -1 ) corresponded to 0.11% per year, a result considered very low for the crop. Using the methodology of Breseghello et al. (1995), the annual average genetic gain for Lambari was 167.62 kg.ha -1 year -1 , corresponding to 0.23% per year. For Janaúba, this gain was 57.88 kg.ha -1 year -1 , or 0.04% per year. In Leopoldina, gains were calculated for the periods 1993/1994 to xv1998/1999 and 1999/2000 to 2015/2016. The genetic gain obtained in the period 1999/2000 to 2015/2016 was 93.93 kg.ha -1 year -1 , which corresponds to 0.1% per year. For the period 1993/1994 to 1998/1999 the gain was -685 kg.ha -1 year -1 , which represents a loss of -2.37% per year. The Breseghello and traditional methodologies were efficient to quantify the gain obtained and the dynamics of the genetic improvement program of the irrigated rice in the state of Minas Gerais, regarding productivity.