Avaliação de agregados celulares de café (Coffea spp.) por técnicas citométricas e citogenéticas

O Brasil lidera o mercado mundial de café em produção e exportação e é o segundo maior consumidor desse grão. Parte do aumento da produção tem sido atribuída aos investimentos em programas de melhoramento e às inovações geradas pelos processos biotecnológicos. Espécies do gênero Coffea têm sido obje...

Nível de Acesso:openAccess
Publication Date:2004
Main Author: Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo lattes
Orientador/a: Carvalho, Carlos Roberto de
Format: Dissertação
Language:por
Published: Universidade Federal de Viçosa
Áreas de Conhecimento:
Online Access:http://www.locus.ufv.br/handle/123456789/10510
Citação:CLARINDO, Wellington Ronildo. Avaliação de agregados celulares de café (Coffea spp.) por técnicas citométricas e citogenéticas. 2004. 83 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Genética e Melhoramento) - Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa. 2004.
Resumo inglês:Brazil leads the world coffee market in production and exportation, and is the second biggest worldwide consumer of the grain. Part of the production increase has been ascribed to the investments on breeding programs and to the innovations brought by the biotechnological processes. Species from the genus Coffea have been investigation to cytogenetical and cytometrical studies, which search for data with cytological and genetical basis, so as to contribute with breeding programs. Among the many contribution levels, this research line has strong potential as a research and genome monitoring tool, considering that karyotype characterization and genomic content quantification generate data that range from tissue culture to hybridization processes. Considering the necessity of improving cytogenetical and cytometrical research strategies, four studying tools have been developed in Coffea. Cytogenetically, it was seeked to obtain chromosomes with adequate morphology for the characterization of C. congensis was seeked, with use of methodologies that increase the metaphasic index and provide chromosomes with adequate morphology for karyogram characterization and assembly. The complement of C. congensis corresponds to 2x=22 chromosomes, being four metacentric chromosomes (4, 6, 8 and 9) and seven submetacentric ones (1, 2, 3, 5, 7 10 and 11). The secondary constriction was identified on the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 7. Image cytometry was used to estimate the DNA content in picograms (pg) in each chromosome of C. canephora cv. Apoatã. In the present study it was possible to measure, based on optical density, the DNA content, with 2C=1,43 pg, for the eleven chromosomes. The values found varied between 0,18 pg (chromosome 1) and 0,10 pg (chromosomes 10 and 11). Samples of calli and cell aggregates of C. canephora cv. Apoatã were collected for verification of the existence of a relationship between the interphasic nuclei with different number of nucleoli and time maintenance of the cultures an in vitro condition. Based on the percentage values of cells with one, two, three or four nucleoli, regression analysis was applied, and it suggested that the in vitro culture time alters the number of nucleoli per nucleus, which can be used as a tool for monitoring the occurrence of somaclonal variations. In terms of flow cytometry were analyzed nuclei suspensions of C. arabica cv. Catuaí Vermelho, extracted from fixed cell aggregates and stained with DAPI. The generated histograms evidenced the occurrence of somaclonal variations (aneuploidies and euploidies) throughout the passages of the cell aggregate suspensions with cells in different phases of the cell cycle. With this study, it is expected that the described results represent an advance on the research of the coffee tree genome.