Comparative epidemiology of grapevine and soybean rusts

Detalhes bibliográficos
Ano de defesa: 2019
Autor(a) principal: Isabela Vescove Primiano
Orientador(a): Lilian Amorim
Banca de defesa: Armando Bergamin Filho, Ivan Herman Fischer, Cláudia Vieira Godoy
Tipo de documento: Tese
Tipo de acesso: Acesso aberto
Idioma: eng
Instituição de defesa: Universidade de São Paulo
Programa de Pós-Graduação: Agronomia (Fitopatologia)
Departamento: Não Informado pela instituição
País: BR
Link de acesso: https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.2019.tde-05092019-103717
Resumo: Phakopsora meliosmae-myrianthae, a causal agent of Asian grapevine leaf rust, and Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a causal agent of Asian soybean rust, cause severe epidemics on their crop hosts. Both Phakopsora spp. seem to behave differently to other rusts, i.e. showing a high frequency of pustules on leaves concomitantly with host tissue necrosis and leading to premature defoliation. To shed light on the epidemiology of these rusts, this study aimed to: (i) compare the colonization progress of P. meliosmae-myrianthae and P. pachyrhizi on their hosts, by determination of fungal biomass via histological staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR); (ii) compare the effects of Phakopsora spp. on host photosynthesis and the monocyclic components: incubation, latent, and infectious periods, number of uredinia, and disease severity over time; and (iii) estimate the relative defoliation rate caused by Asian grapevine and soybean rusts and its relationship to a range of disease severity. All pathosystems showed lesion expansion. Mycelial colonization did not extend beyond the lesion border. No increase in the number of lesions was observed over time, but formation of new uredinia of P. pachyrhizi and P. meliosmae-myrianthae within an existing lesion, without the need for a new infection site, increased by 9- to 19-fold, respectively. Incubation and latent periods were coincident for 8 days in Asian grapevine leaf rust and 13 days in Asian soybean rust. Minimum infectious periods were 21 days for P. meliosmae-myrianthae and 13 days for P. pachyrhizi, and both pathogens presented several sporulation peaks. Both Phakopsora rusts showed an increase in disease severity during monocycle, with similar progress rates that were estimated with the monomolecular model as 0.06 and 0.05 day-1 for grapevine and soybean rusts, respectively. P. meliosmae-myrianthae and P. pachyrhizi infection reduced relative photosynthetic rates by 22% and 5%, respectively, before the onset of symptoms. Defoliation rates of grapevine and soybean rusts were positively correlated with mean disease severity, according to a logarithmic model. On symptomless grapevine and soybean leaves, defoliation rates were 0.05 and 0.06 day-1, respectively. On diseased grapevine leaves, defoliation rate was 0.13 day-1 for leaves with disease severity between 12.1% and 25%. The rate of defoliation on soybean leaflets was 0.12 day-1 when disease severity was between 25% and 60%. Our findings showed that the epidemiological behaviour of P. meliosmae-myrianthae is similar to that of P. pachyrhizi. The continuous increase in the number of uredinia within lesions ensures an infectious period with several urediniospore production peaks, which is an efficient survival mechanism for these pathogens in the tropics. This might be directly related to the frequent epidemics caused by Phakopsora spp.
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spelling info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersioninfo:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Comparative epidemiology of grapevine and soybean rusts Epidemiologia comparativa das ferrugens da videira e da soja 2019-07-01Lilian AmorimArmando Bergamin FilhoIvan Herman FischerCláudia Vieira GodoyIsabela Vescove PrimianoUniversidade de São PauloAgronomia (Fitopatologia)USPBR Glycine max Glycine max Phakopsora euvitis Phakopsora euvitis Vitis spp. Vitis spp. Biotrophic interaction Expansão da lesão Interação biotrófica Lesion expansion Phakopsora meliosmae-myrianthae, a causal agent of Asian grapevine leaf rust, and Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a causal agent of Asian soybean rust, cause severe epidemics on their crop hosts. Both Phakopsora spp. seem to behave differently to other rusts, i.e. showing a high frequency of pustules on leaves concomitantly with host tissue necrosis and leading to premature defoliation. To shed light on the epidemiology of these rusts, this study aimed to: (i) compare the colonization progress of P. meliosmae-myrianthae and P. pachyrhizi on their hosts, by determination of fungal biomass via histological staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR); (ii) compare the effects of Phakopsora spp. on host photosynthesis and the monocyclic components: incubation, latent, and infectious periods, number of uredinia, and disease severity over time; and (iii) estimate the relative defoliation rate caused by Asian grapevine and soybean rusts and its relationship to a range of disease severity. All pathosystems showed lesion expansion. Mycelial colonization did not extend beyond the lesion border. No increase in the number of lesions was observed over time, but formation of new uredinia of P. pachyrhizi and P. meliosmae-myrianthae within an existing lesion, without the need for a new infection site, increased by 9- to 19-fold, respectively. Incubation and latent periods were coincident for 8 days in Asian grapevine leaf rust and 13 days in Asian soybean rust. Minimum infectious periods were 21 days for P. meliosmae-myrianthae and 13 days for P. pachyrhizi, and both pathogens presented several sporulation peaks. Both Phakopsora rusts showed an increase in disease severity during monocycle, with similar progress rates that were estimated with the monomolecular model as 0.06 and 0.05 day-1 for grapevine and soybean rusts, respectively. P. meliosmae-myrianthae and P. pachyrhizi infection reduced relative photosynthetic rates by 22% and 5%, respectively, before the onset of symptoms. Defoliation rates of grapevine and soybean rusts were positively correlated with mean disease severity, according to a logarithmic model. On symptomless grapevine and soybean leaves, defoliation rates were 0.05 and 0.06 day-1, respectively. On diseased grapevine leaves, defoliation rate was 0.13 day-1 for leaves with disease severity between 12.1% and 25%. The rate of defoliation on soybean leaflets was 0.12 day-1 when disease severity was between 25% and 60%. Our findings showed that the epidemiological behaviour of P. meliosmae-myrianthae is similar to that of P. pachyrhizi. The continuous increase in the number of uredinia within lesions ensures an infectious period with several urediniospore production peaks, which is an efficient survival mechanism for these pathogens in the tropics. This might be directly related to the frequent epidemics caused by Phakopsora spp. Phakopsora meliosmae-myrianthae, agente causal da ferrugem asiática da videira, e Phakopsora pachyrhizi, agente causal da ferrugem asiática da soja, ocasionam epidemias severas em seus hospedeiros. O comportamento dessas Phakopsora spp. parece não seguir o padrão de outras ferrugens, por exemplo apresentam elevada frequência de pústulas no limbo foliar concomitantemente à necrose foliar e desfolha precoce. Para elucidar a epidemiologia dessas ferrugens, este estudo teve como objetivos: (i) comparar o progresso da colonização de P. meliosmae-myrianthae e de P. pachyrhizi, em seus hospedeiros, pela determinação da biomassa fúngica via coloração histológica e via reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (qPCR); (ii) comparar os efeitos de Phakopsora spp. na fotossíntese dos seus hospedeiros e os componentes monocíclicos: períodos de incubação, latente e infeccioso, número de uredínios e severidade da doença ao longo do tempo; e (iii) estimar as taxas relativas de desfolha ocasionadas pelas ferrugens da videira e da soja em função da severidade das doenças. Todos os patossistemas apresentaram crescimento da lesão. A colonização micelial não se estendeu além da borda da lesão. Não foi observado aumento no número de lesões ao longo do tempo, mas o número de novos uredínios de P. pachyrhizi e de P. meliosmae- myrianthae nas lesões aumentou em 9 e 19 vezes, respectivamente. Os períodos de incubação e latente foram coincidentes: 8 dias para ferrugem da videira e 13 dias para a ferrugem da soja. Os períodos infecciosos foram de, no mínimo, 21 dias para P. meliosmae-myrianthae e de 13 dias para P. pachyrhizi e foram compostos de vários picos de esporulação para ambas as ferrugens. Durante o monociclo, as duas ferrugens apresentaram aumento da severidade, com similar taxa de progresso, determinada pelo modelo monomolecular, de 0,06 dia-1 e 0,05 dia-1, para as ferrugens da videira e da soja, respectivamente. Phakopsora meliosmae-myrianthae e P. pachyrhizi reduziram, em média, 22% e 5% da taxa fotossintética líquida nas folhas infectadas antes do aparecimento dos sintomas, respectivamente. As taxas de desfolha da ferrugem da videira e da soja foram positivamente correlacionadas com a severidade média das doenças, de acordo com um modelo logarítmico. Nas folhas de videira e de soja sem sintomas, as taxas de desfolha foram de 0,05 dia-1 e 0,06 dia-1, respectivamente. Nas folhas de videira com severidade da doença entre 12,1 a 25%, a taxa de desfolha foi de 0,13 dia-1 e nos folíolos de soja com severidade da doença entre 25 a 60%, foi de 0,12 dia-1. Nossos resultados mostram que o comportamento epidemiológico de P. meliosmae-myrianthae é semelhante ao de P. pachyrhizi. O contínuo aumento do número de uredínios na lesão favorece um período infeccioso com vários picos de produção de urediniósporos, sendo um eficiente mecanismo de sobrevivência desses patógenos nos trópicos. Essas características podem estar diretamente relacionadas às frequentes epidemias ocasionadas por Phakopsora spp. https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.2019.tde-05092019-103717info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessengreponame:Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da USPinstname:Universidade de São Paulo (USP)instacron:USP2023-12-21T18:16:46Zoai:teses.usp.br:tde-05092019-103717Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertaçõeshttp://www.teses.usp.br/PUBhttp://www.teses.usp.br/cgi-bin/mtd2br.plvirginia@if.usp.br|| atendimento@aguia.usp.br||virginia@if.usp.bropendoar:27212019-11-08T20:35:56Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da USP - Universidade de São Paulo (USP)false
dc.title.en.fl_str_mv Comparative epidemiology of grapevine and soybean rusts
dc.title.alternative.pt.fl_str_mv Epidemiologia comparativa das ferrugens da videira e da soja
title Comparative epidemiology of grapevine and soybean rusts
spellingShingle Comparative epidemiology of grapevine and soybean rusts
Isabela Vescove Primiano
title_short Comparative epidemiology of grapevine and soybean rusts
title_full Comparative epidemiology of grapevine and soybean rusts
title_fullStr Comparative epidemiology of grapevine and soybean rusts
title_full_unstemmed Comparative epidemiology of grapevine and soybean rusts
title_sort Comparative epidemiology of grapevine and soybean rusts
author Isabela Vescove Primiano
author_facet Isabela Vescove Primiano
author_role author
dc.contributor.advisor1.fl_str_mv Lilian Amorim
dc.contributor.referee1.fl_str_mv Armando Bergamin Filho
dc.contributor.referee2.fl_str_mv Ivan Herman Fischer
dc.contributor.referee3.fl_str_mv Cláudia Vieira Godoy
dc.contributor.author.fl_str_mv Isabela Vescove Primiano
contributor_str_mv Lilian Amorim
Armando Bergamin Filho
Ivan Herman Fischer
Cláudia Vieira Godoy
description Phakopsora meliosmae-myrianthae, a causal agent of Asian grapevine leaf rust, and Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a causal agent of Asian soybean rust, cause severe epidemics on their crop hosts. Both Phakopsora spp. seem to behave differently to other rusts, i.e. showing a high frequency of pustules on leaves concomitantly with host tissue necrosis and leading to premature defoliation. To shed light on the epidemiology of these rusts, this study aimed to: (i) compare the colonization progress of P. meliosmae-myrianthae and P. pachyrhizi on their hosts, by determination of fungal biomass via histological staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR); (ii) compare the effects of Phakopsora spp. on host photosynthesis and the monocyclic components: incubation, latent, and infectious periods, number of uredinia, and disease severity over time; and (iii) estimate the relative defoliation rate caused by Asian grapevine and soybean rusts and its relationship to a range of disease severity. All pathosystems showed lesion expansion. Mycelial colonization did not extend beyond the lesion border. No increase in the number of lesions was observed over time, but formation of new uredinia of P. pachyrhizi and P. meliosmae-myrianthae within an existing lesion, without the need for a new infection site, increased by 9- to 19-fold, respectively. Incubation and latent periods were coincident for 8 days in Asian grapevine leaf rust and 13 days in Asian soybean rust. Minimum infectious periods were 21 days for P. meliosmae-myrianthae and 13 days for P. pachyrhizi, and both pathogens presented several sporulation peaks. Both Phakopsora rusts showed an increase in disease severity during monocycle, with similar progress rates that were estimated with the monomolecular model as 0.06 and 0.05 day-1 for grapevine and soybean rusts, respectively. P. meliosmae-myrianthae and P. pachyrhizi infection reduced relative photosynthetic rates by 22% and 5%, respectively, before the onset of symptoms. Defoliation rates of grapevine and soybean rusts were positively correlated with mean disease severity, according to a logarithmic model. On symptomless grapevine and soybean leaves, defoliation rates were 0.05 and 0.06 day-1, respectively. On diseased grapevine leaves, defoliation rate was 0.13 day-1 for leaves with disease severity between 12.1% and 25%. The rate of defoliation on soybean leaflets was 0.12 day-1 when disease severity was between 25% and 60%. Our findings showed that the epidemiological behaviour of P. meliosmae-myrianthae is similar to that of P. pachyrhizi. The continuous increase in the number of uredinia within lesions ensures an infectious period with several urediniospore production peaks, which is an efficient survival mechanism for these pathogens in the tropics. This might be directly related to the frequent epidemics caused by Phakopsora spp.
publishDate 2019
dc.date.issued.fl_str_mv 2019-07-01
dc.type.status.fl_str_mv info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
dc.type.driver.fl_str_mv info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
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dc.identifier.uri.fl_str_mv https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.2019.tde-05092019-103717
url https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.2019.tde-05092019-103717
dc.language.iso.fl_str_mv eng
language eng
dc.rights.driver.fl_str_mv info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
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dc.publisher.none.fl_str_mv Universidade de São Paulo
dc.publisher.program.fl_str_mv Agronomia (Fitopatologia)
dc.publisher.initials.fl_str_mv USP
dc.publisher.country.fl_str_mv BR
publisher.none.fl_str_mv Universidade de São Paulo
dc.source.none.fl_str_mv reponame:Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da USP
instname:Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
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instname_str Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
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reponame_str Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da USP
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repository.name.fl_str_mv Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da USP - Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
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