Agricultural expansion affects soil quality indicators in the MATOPIBA region: Brazil\'s new agricultural frontier

Detalhes bibliográficos
Ano de defesa: 2021
Autor(a) principal: Jorge Luiz Locatelli
Orientador(a): Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri
Banca de defesa: Jeferson Dieckow, Renato Paiva de Lima
Tipo de documento: Dissertação
Tipo de acesso: Acesso aberto
Idioma: eng
Instituição de defesa: Universidade de São Paulo
Programa de Pós-Graduação: Agronomia (Solos e Nutrição de Plantas)
Departamento: Não Informado pela instituição
País: BR
Link de acesso: https://doi.org/10.11606/D.11.2021.tde-05082021-093656
Resumo: The global increase in demand for primary resources has caused the intensification and expansion of agriculture. In Brazil, this has occurred in the MATOPIBA region (northeast region), considered the new agricultural frontier in the country. However, due to local soil and climate conditions and the effects promoted by land-use change (LUC), the sustainability of agricultural development in the region has been questioned. The tested hypothesis in this study was that agricultural expansion in the region leads to soil degradation. Therefore, a field study was conducted in a representative area of the MATOPIBA region, where the LUC effects in the soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics and the main soil physical quality indicators were evaluated. The sampling process was carried out in three uses: native vegetation - Cerrado (NV), pasture (PA) and cropland (CA). Soils were classified as Typic Haplustox (Soil Taxonomy) and as Latossolo Amarelo distrófico in the PA area, and Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico in NV and CL areas (Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos). Disturbed and undisturbed samples were collected up to 1 m, and attributes related to SOM were assessed, such as total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, C of the fractions obtained through the physical fractionation of SOM, and the carbon management index (CMI). Physical attributes were obtained up to 30 cm, being indicators of soil compaction, pore distribution, air and water fluxes, and aggregate stability. The results showed that the conversion from NV to extensive PA reduced the total C and N stocks, the C content from the mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM) and of particulate organic matter (POM) fractions, and the CMI. Besides, the conversion to PA resulted in soil compaction, which consequently reduced porous space and air and water fluxes, reaching the critical levels for plant growth. On the other hand, the conversion from NV to CL did not affect the total C and N stocks. There was a decrease in the C stocks from the MAOM fraction, but the increase in C in POM was able to offset such losses. The increase observed in C levels in POM improved the CMI, indicating an increase in the SOM quality. Despite the positive effects in the SOM dynamics, the conversion from NV to CL did not promote the same impact on the assessed physical indicators. Although the critical levels for plant growth have not been reached, the establishment of CL favored soil compaction, reduced porous space, saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil, and aggregate stability (compared to NV), which increases soil\'s susceptibility to erosion. Overall, the results obtained indicate the urgent need to adopt conservationist practices for the management of areas in the MATOPIBA region. Soil quality in PA areas can be improved by adopting optimized grazing techniques (e.g., stocking rate control and rotational grazing) and improving soil fertility (especially N). Likewise, crop rotation and machine traffic control can be viable options for improving the management of CL areas, mitigating the negative effects induced by the LUC, and supporting the provision of ecosystem services in the region.
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spelling info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersioninfo:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis Agricultural expansion affects soil quality indicators in the MATOPIBA region: Brazil\'s new agricultural frontier Expansão agrícola afeta indicadores de qualidade do solo na região de MATOPIBA: a nova fronteira agrícola do Brasil 2021-07-05Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino CerriJeferson DieckowRenato Paiva de LimaJorge Luiz LocatelliUniversidade de São PauloAgronomia (Solos e Nutrição de Plantas)USPBR Cerrado Cerrado CMI Física do solo IMC Matéria orgânica MATOPIB MATOPIBA Organic matter Qualidade do solo Soil physics Soil quality The global increase in demand for primary resources has caused the intensification and expansion of agriculture. In Brazil, this has occurred in the MATOPIBA region (northeast region), considered the new agricultural frontier in the country. However, due to local soil and climate conditions and the effects promoted by land-use change (LUC), the sustainability of agricultural development in the region has been questioned. The tested hypothesis in this study was that agricultural expansion in the region leads to soil degradation. Therefore, a field study was conducted in a representative area of the MATOPIBA region, where the LUC effects in the soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics and the main soil physical quality indicators were evaluated. The sampling process was carried out in three uses: native vegetation - Cerrado (NV), pasture (PA) and cropland (CA). Soils were classified as Typic Haplustox (Soil Taxonomy) and as Latossolo Amarelo distrófico in the PA area, and Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico in NV and CL areas (Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos). Disturbed and undisturbed samples were collected up to 1 m, and attributes related to SOM were assessed, such as total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, C of the fractions obtained through the physical fractionation of SOM, and the carbon management index (CMI). Physical attributes were obtained up to 30 cm, being indicators of soil compaction, pore distribution, air and water fluxes, and aggregate stability. The results showed that the conversion from NV to extensive PA reduced the total C and N stocks, the C content from the mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM) and of particulate organic matter (POM) fractions, and the CMI. Besides, the conversion to PA resulted in soil compaction, which consequently reduced porous space and air and water fluxes, reaching the critical levels for plant growth. On the other hand, the conversion from NV to CL did not affect the total C and N stocks. There was a decrease in the C stocks from the MAOM fraction, but the increase in C in POM was able to offset such losses. The increase observed in C levels in POM improved the CMI, indicating an increase in the SOM quality. Despite the positive effects in the SOM dynamics, the conversion from NV to CL did not promote the same impact on the assessed physical indicators. Although the critical levels for plant growth have not been reached, the establishment of CL favored soil compaction, reduced porous space, saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil, and aggregate stability (compared to NV), which increases soil\'s susceptibility to erosion. Overall, the results obtained indicate the urgent need to adopt conservationist practices for the management of areas in the MATOPIBA region. Soil quality in PA areas can be improved by adopting optimized grazing techniques (e.g., stocking rate control and rotational grazing) and improving soil fertility (especially N). Likewise, crop rotation and machine traffic control can be viable options for improving the management of CL areas, mitigating the negative effects induced by the LUC, and supporting the provision of ecosystem services in the region. O aumento global da demanda por recursos básicos tem causado a intensificação e a expansão da agricultura. No Brasil, isso tem ocorrido na região do MATOPIBA (região nordeste), considerada a nova fronteira agrícola do país. Entretanto, devido as condições locais de solo e clima e dos efeitos promovidos pela mudança do uso da terra (MUT), a sustentabilidade do desenvolvimento agrícola na região tem sido questionada. A hipótese testada nesse estudo foi de que a expansão agrícola na região induz a degradação do solo. Diante disso, foi conduzido um estudo de campo em uma área representativa da região do MATOPIBA, onde foi avaliado os efeitos da MUT na dinâmica da matéria orgânica do solo (MOS) e nos principais indicadores da qualidade física do solo. A amostragem foi realizada em três usos: mata nativa - Cerrado (MN), pastagem (PA) e cultivo anual (CA). Os solos foram classificados como Typic Haplustox (Soil Taxonomy), e Latossolo Amarelo distrófico na área de PA e Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo nas áreas de MN e CA, segundo o Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos. Amostras deformadas e indeformadas foram coletadas até 1 m de profundidade, e foram avaliados atributos relacionados a MOS, como teor de carbono (C) e nitrogênio (N) totais, C das frações obtidas por meio do fracionamento físico da MOS, e o índice de manejo de carbono (IMC). Atributos físicos foram avaliados até 30 cm, sendo indicadores da compactação do solo, distribuição de poros, fluxos de ar e água, e estabilidade de agregados. Os resultados mostraram que a conversão de MN para PA extensivo reduziu os estoques totais de C e N, os teores de C contido nas frações da matéria orgânica associada aos minerais (MOAM) e da matéria orgânica particulada (MOP), e o IMC. Além disso, a conversão para PA resultou na compactação do solo, que consequentemente reduziu o espaço poroso e os fluxos de ar e água, atingindo os níveis críticos para o crescimento das plantas. Por outro lado, a conversão da MN para CA não afetou os estoques totais de C e N. Houve um decréscimo nos estoques de C associados à fração da MOAM, mas o aumento do C na MOP foi capaz de compensar tais perdas. O aumento observado nos teores de C na MOP resultou em um acréscimo no IMC, indicando o aumento da qualidade da MOS. Apesar dos efeitos positivos na dinâmica da MOS, a conversão de MN para CA não promoveu o mesmo efeito nos indicadores físicos avaliados. Embora os níveis críticos para o crescimento das plantas não tenham sido atingidos, o estabelecimento do CA favoreceu a compactação do solo, reduziu o espaço poroso, a condutividade hidráulica saturada do solo e a estabilidade de agregados (comparado a MN), o que aumenta a suscetibilidade do solo a erosão. Em geral, os resultados obtidos indicam a necessidade urgente da adoção de práticas conservacionistas para o manejo das áreas na região do MATOPIBA. A qualidade do solo em áreas de PA pode ser substancialmente melhorada por meio da adoção de técnicas de pastejo otimizadas (e.g., controle de taxa de ocupação, pastejo rotacionado) e da melhoria da fertilidade do solo (especialmente N). Do mesmo modo, a rotação de culturas e o controle de tráfego de máquinas podem ser opções viáveis para a melhoria do manejo das áreas de CA, reduzindo os efeitos negativos induzidos pela MUT, e favorecendo a provisão de serviços ecossistêmicos na região. https://doi.org/10.11606/D.11.2021.tde-05082021-093656info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessengreponame:Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da USPinstname:Universidade de São Paulo (USP)instacron:USP2023-12-21T18:16:29Zoai:teses.usp.br:tde-05082021-093656Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertaçõeshttp://www.teses.usp.br/PUBhttp://www.teses.usp.br/cgi-bin/mtd2br.plvirginia@if.usp.br|| atendimento@aguia.usp.br||virginia@if.usp.bropendoar:27212021-08-05T21:07:02Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da USP - Universidade de São Paulo (USP)false
dc.title.en.fl_str_mv Agricultural expansion affects soil quality indicators in the MATOPIBA region: Brazil\'s new agricultural frontier
dc.title.alternative.pt.fl_str_mv Expansão agrícola afeta indicadores de qualidade do solo na região de MATOPIBA: a nova fronteira agrícola do Brasil
title Agricultural expansion affects soil quality indicators in the MATOPIBA region: Brazil\'s new agricultural frontier
spellingShingle Agricultural expansion affects soil quality indicators in the MATOPIBA region: Brazil\'s new agricultural frontier
Jorge Luiz Locatelli
title_short Agricultural expansion affects soil quality indicators in the MATOPIBA region: Brazil\'s new agricultural frontier
title_full Agricultural expansion affects soil quality indicators in the MATOPIBA region: Brazil\'s new agricultural frontier
title_fullStr Agricultural expansion affects soil quality indicators in the MATOPIBA region: Brazil\'s new agricultural frontier
title_full_unstemmed Agricultural expansion affects soil quality indicators in the MATOPIBA region: Brazil\'s new agricultural frontier
title_sort Agricultural expansion affects soil quality indicators in the MATOPIBA region: Brazil\'s new agricultural frontier
author Jorge Luiz Locatelli
author_facet Jorge Luiz Locatelli
author_role author
dc.contributor.advisor1.fl_str_mv Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri
dc.contributor.referee1.fl_str_mv Jeferson Dieckow
dc.contributor.referee2.fl_str_mv Renato Paiva de Lima
dc.contributor.author.fl_str_mv Jorge Luiz Locatelli
contributor_str_mv Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri
Jeferson Dieckow
Renato Paiva de Lima
description The global increase in demand for primary resources has caused the intensification and expansion of agriculture. In Brazil, this has occurred in the MATOPIBA region (northeast region), considered the new agricultural frontier in the country. However, due to local soil and climate conditions and the effects promoted by land-use change (LUC), the sustainability of agricultural development in the region has been questioned. The tested hypothesis in this study was that agricultural expansion in the region leads to soil degradation. Therefore, a field study was conducted in a representative area of the MATOPIBA region, where the LUC effects in the soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics and the main soil physical quality indicators were evaluated. The sampling process was carried out in three uses: native vegetation - Cerrado (NV), pasture (PA) and cropland (CA). Soils were classified as Typic Haplustox (Soil Taxonomy) and as Latossolo Amarelo distrófico in the PA area, and Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico in NV and CL areas (Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos). Disturbed and undisturbed samples were collected up to 1 m, and attributes related to SOM were assessed, such as total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, C of the fractions obtained through the physical fractionation of SOM, and the carbon management index (CMI). Physical attributes were obtained up to 30 cm, being indicators of soil compaction, pore distribution, air and water fluxes, and aggregate stability. The results showed that the conversion from NV to extensive PA reduced the total C and N stocks, the C content from the mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM) and of particulate organic matter (POM) fractions, and the CMI. Besides, the conversion to PA resulted in soil compaction, which consequently reduced porous space and air and water fluxes, reaching the critical levels for plant growth. On the other hand, the conversion from NV to CL did not affect the total C and N stocks. There was a decrease in the C stocks from the MAOM fraction, but the increase in C in POM was able to offset such losses. The increase observed in C levels in POM improved the CMI, indicating an increase in the SOM quality. Despite the positive effects in the SOM dynamics, the conversion from NV to CL did not promote the same impact on the assessed physical indicators. Although the critical levels for plant growth have not been reached, the establishment of CL favored soil compaction, reduced porous space, saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil, and aggregate stability (compared to NV), which increases soil\'s susceptibility to erosion. Overall, the results obtained indicate the urgent need to adopt conservationist practices for the management of areas in the MATOPIBA region. Soil quality in PA areas can be improved by adopting optimized grazing techniques (e.g., stocking rate control and rotational grazing) and improving soil fertility (especially N). Likewise, crop rotation and machine traffic control can be viable options for improving the management of CL areas, mitigating the negative effects induced by the LUC, and supporting the provision of ecosystem services in the region.
publishDate 2021
dc.date.issued.fl_str_mv 2021-07-05
dc.type.status.fl_str_mv info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
dc.type.driver.fl_str_mv info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis
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dc.identifier.uri.fl_str_mv https://doi.org/10.11606/D.11.2021.tde-05082021-093656
url https://doi.org/10.11606/D.11.2021.tde-05082021-093656
dc.language.iso.fl_str_mv eng
language eng
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dc.publisher.none.fl_str_mv Universidade de São Paulo
dc.publisher.program.fl_str_mv Agronomia (Solos e Nutrição de Plantas)
dc.publisher.initials.fl_str_mv USP
dc.publisher.country.fl_str_mv BR
publisher.none.fl_str_mv Universidade de São Paulo
dc.source.none.fl_str_mv reponame:Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da USP
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reponame_str Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da USP
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repository.name.fl_str_mv Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da USP - Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
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